This is the symbol that identifies a Jewish house. It consists of a small tube or box of various materials (wood, silver, ivory etc.) which contains different prayers written on a ,,klaf“‘. It is placed on the right-hand side of the entrance to Jewish homes and Jewish places and tilted diagonally to one side. This is a rule specified in the Bible, Deuteronomy (Devarim) VI, verses 4 to 9 and chapter XI, verses 13 to 21, where it says My words have to be written on the entrance of your house and your cities “. There is a custom regarding the Mezuzah that occurs when a Jew leaves or returns home. He places his hand over the Mezuzah and says, “God will look after my departure and my return, now and forever.”
This is one of the oldest symbols of Judaism. It consists of two leather cubes that contain four fragments of the Torah and a leather cord or ribbon with which to hold them, one on the left arm and the other wrapped around the head. Following their Bar Mitzvah, males use the phylacteries to pray on weekday mornings (Shacharit). They are written on by a scribe. The skin used for the leather boxes and the cord or ribbon must come from a pure (kosher) animal, as with the Klaf. The phylacteries are revised every seven years to make sure they remain appropriate and to ensure they have not been damaged or the letters erased..
The Scroll of Esther and gragger – The feast of Purim is a Jewish holiday that is celebrated annually on the 14th of the Jewish month 0fAdar (February-March) in order to commemorate the miracle recounted in the Book of Esther. During this month, Jews were saved from extermination under the rule of the Persian King Ahasuerus, identified by some historians as Xerxes I, around 450 B.C.
In spite of the fact that Purim is considered one of the happiest days in the Jewish calendar, Jews are required to fast and pray the day before, in memory of the Persian Jews who fasted to save themselves from an imminent conflict, which could have led to their extermination by Haman and his followers in the army of the Persian Empire.
During Purim they read the Megillah Scroll /“The Book of Esther.” This reading is performed at high speed and the listeners must make noise with graggers or other objects every time the name of Hamanis is read, so as not to hear the name. This makes it possible for children to be involved in the reading.
Circumcision is the first commandment given by God to Abraham, the first Jew, and is a central part of Judaism. The ritual takes place in the synagogue on the eighth day of birth, at which time the child is formally given his name.